Down Syndrome Symptoms, Different Types and Risks

Down syndrome symptoms, symptoms of down syndrome, trisomy 21, down syndrome treatment

Learn the most common Down syndrome symptoms and risk factors, including medical conditions, physical traits and possible behavioral characteristics. Severity of these generally varies in each child depending on which different type the child may have.

Many researchers believe that there are typically fewer symptoms in individuals with the types mosaicism and translocation, than those with the type non-disjunction. This is because non-disjunction is the only one that involves a third chromosome 21 found in all the cells of the body <span style='font-size: 50%'>(1).

The three different types of Down syndrome are<span style='font-size: 50%'>(2):

1. Non-disjunction (also known as Trisomy 21)
2. Mosaicism
3. Translocation

Children diagnosed may have similar cognitive/behavioral and physical characteristics of Down syndrome, such as being shorter than average and/or having difficulty communicating effectively.

Down syndrome symptoms will also likely include medical conditions that may affect daily functioning. Some of these include<span style='font-size: 50%'>(3):

• Mild to moderate cognitive disability
• Metabolic Imbalances
• Almost half of children are born with a heart defect that can be progressive and lead to heart surgery
• Low Muscle Tone
• Risks of obesity
• Depressed immune system, leading to a higher incidence of infection, respiratory problems, and frequent cold and flu viruses<span style='font-size: 50%'>(2)
.
• Risks of gastrointestinal complications, including esophageal atresia.
• Risks of leukemia and other cancers
• Seizure disorders
• Other conditions, such as celiac disease, epilepsy, hypothyroidism, sleep apnea, vision and hearing impairments, gastrointestinal problems, skin problems and eye conditions.

Down syndrome treatment generally involves controlling symptoms of medical conditions, as it appears there are no cures for Down syndrome. However, some have used nutritional interventions in treatment and seen a dramatic improvement and even prevention of symptoms.

As a result of having a cognitive disability, a child may be at risk of having behavioral challenges and therefore treatment might involve behavioral supports. There may be impulsiveness and difficulty controlling anger, causing children a need to learn anger management techniques.

Changing activities and defiance may also be problematic, which can be helped through the use of transition strategies or compliance strategies. Behavior supports used will differ for each child depending on his/her specific challenges.

You may find some other really great ideas for dealing with behavior problems under the Behavior Help section.

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References

1. Web MD. Down Syndrome. www.webmed.com. 3-6-10. 2. Cauldwell, K. (2006). Down Syndrome Information: Characteristics of Down Syndrome. www.associatedcontent.com. 10-11-10. 3. Web MD. Down Syndrome Symptoms. www.webmd.com. 3-6-10.

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